Coffee Origins 101: A Guide to South American Coffee
Did you know that the US imports over 18% of all imported coffee? Over $15 billion of those imports are South American coffee. South America is largely responsible for coffee production, even though the locals are not big consumers of the coffee industry.
The US is the largest consumer of coffee globally, but the close proximity of the South American coffee industry is not the only reason it is so popular. South American coffee is also highly sought-after for its flavor and smooth profile.
Keep reading to learn more about the world’s second most-consumed drink!
Coffee Growing in South America
The unique flavor of South American coffee is due to several different factors.
First, the soil is a huge reason why coffee differs in smoothness. The right soil will allow the roots of the coffee plant to absorb the moisture and nutrients of the soil. When a plant is properly hydrated and fed, the oils and fats are more prominent and create a smoother flavor profile.
Secondly, the climate can change the caffeine and taste of a coffee bean as well. The colder the climate, the slower the plant and beans mature. The slow process of maturing allows for a sweeter and complex flavor profile.
Experienced coffee drinkers are able to determine the region and type of bean used in the cup of joe with a lot of practice. However, soil and climate are not the only factors that make up the flavor of the coffee. The type of bean, the roast, grind size, and freshness of the bean all contribute to the taste of a delicious cup of coffee.
South American Coffee Industry: A History
A common misconception is that coffee originated in South America. However, this is untrue. Coffee was first produced in Africa, and in the 18th century, the plant that many people today depend on, was introduced to South America.
Luckily for us today, South America has the perfect growing conditions for the best coffee. However, South America did have to overcome some struggles over the years. The collapse of the International Coffee Agreement in 1989 caused several issues in economics and the environment.
Since then, global and regional trade agreements have attempted to lessen the impact of the trade. In addition, several rules and regulations are now in place to steady the environment and economy.
Now, South America is the leading continent in producing coffee all over the world, despite its rough history. Unfortunately, due to climate change, coffee is at risk of becoming blander. As mentioned before, the coolness of the mountains produces a sweeter and complex taste.
When the global temperature increases, the flavor profile of these beans is less complicated as they mature faster.
South American Coffee Production
Despite climate change and other issues, the coffee industry has run into, the South American continent still produces excellent coffee.
There are two different coffee plants produced and grown on the continent. The first and most popular bean, the Arabica bean, grows best in higher altitudes, and therefore in the mountains.
The second bean, the Robusta bean, grows best at a lower altitude, usually below 750m above sea level.
Brazil is the largest exporter of coffee. And for a good reason! Brazil is a front-runner in producing a smooth taste and feel. The Brazilian coffee bean is known for its notes of chocolate, nuts, and spices. When farmed at a higher altitude, it also produces beans with citrus notes.
Brazil is one of the few countries that use the dry method, which means that the farmers dry the beans in the sun instead of washing them.
Even though Brazil is the largest exporter, together with Columbia, many of the farmers are forced to sell their coffee below the production price, due to unfair trading practices.
The local economy in Columbia relies heavily on the production of coffee. Columbian beans are widely sold in many supermarkets and are often for the morning cup of coffee by many consumers.
The coffees that originate from Columbia are flavorful and full-bodied, with hints of citrus and chocolate.
Peruvian coffee is a front-runner when it comes to organic and fair-trade options. The coffee industry in Peru is mainly exported for the specialty coffee market with its medium body and high acidity.
Venezuela used to be on par with Columbia when it came to production. However, since petroleum is now the country’s main export, Venezuela is responsible for only 1% of the coffee supply.
Most coffee is now consumed by the local population. The beans usually have a balanced acidity and tend to be on the sweeter side.
Ecuador is known for their instant coffee, and produce some of the best instant coffees in the world. Many locals prefer instant coffee and it is largely consumed in the regions.
It is quite expensive to buy Ecuadorian coffee, however. Due to the limitations set on the local farming communities. Many coffee farms are family-owned, instead of the large plantation farms used in other parts of the continent.
The Best Roasting Techniques
There are ten stages of roasting and each stage will give you a different flavor and body. Before the roasting, it is essential to determine the goal. Ask yourself these questions.
Do you want to roast for espresso or filter? How will the consumer drink it? Black? With milk?
There is no right or wrong way to roast a bean, however, it is essential to take certain things into account. Such as temperature, for example. If the temperature is too high throughout the roasting process, you will develop a burnt taste. Although, when the temperature is too low, the flavor will escape and the bean will become bland.
Buy South American Coffee Today
The right bean is essential to a good cup of South American coffee. It is the first step in producing the best cup of joe for your customers. At ICT, we pride ourselves on providing the best beans in the market.
Check out our coffees today and feel free to reach out for more information!